There are a number of people who say simply that Mormon hid all the records in the Hill Cumorah except those that he gave to Moroni. And that Moroni left the land of Cumorah with the records his father gave him and wandered whether so ever for the next 36 years (385-421 AD) without ever returning to that land of death and extinction. Then Moroni finally buried his records in the hill in New York state where he gave them to Joseph Smith for translation. They point out that the hill in New York and the hill Cumorah in the Book of Mormon are not the same hill. And the fact that Mormon buried 'all' the records 'except' (save it where) those given to Moroni in the Hill Cumorah is proof positive that Moroni's records can only be buried in any hill but Cumorah because of this 'exception.' That exception being that Moroni's set of records could not be buried in Cumorah as they where 'excepted' from being buried there by Mormon's statement that they where not a part of what was buried in Cumorah.
They say that it is simple minded to assume that the hill that has become know in the Chruch as Cumorah in the state of New York is the hill Cumorah of the Book of Mormon. And thus they label all early Chruch members, both leader and follower alike, as being too simple minded to understand that the hill in New York was not Cumorah, and that Cumorah was really in Central America as proclaimed by the academic 'Ivory Tower' of FARMS and John L. Sorenson today.
If such is the case, then I am proud to stand as one who is so simpleminded. But who is of the simple mind in reality I would ask? The last book of the New Testament ends in these words:
Revelations 22:18-19 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
And many Christians use this verse to proclaim that there is to be no more scripture written beyond the New Testament. Now that is simple mindedness for there are facts which counter their argument. The last epistles of John himself where written and added to the New Testament after the Book of Revelations. And that the statement of exclusion here only refers to the one singular revelation called revelations and not all of scriptural writing is well founded in the fact that Moses said the same thing at the end of the Book of Deuteronomy
Deut. 4: 2 Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you.
In the Book of Mormon it says something similar.
3 Ne. 11: 40 And whoso shall declare more or less than this, and establish it for my doctrine, the same cometh of evil, and is not built upon my rock; but he buildeth upon a sandy foundation, and the gates of hell stand open to receive such when the floods come and the winds beat upon them.
But it is explained in D&C what is being said in each of these cases.
D&C 20: 35 And we know that these things are true and according to the revelations of John, neither adding to, nor diminishing from the prophecy of his book, the holy scriptures, or the revelations of God which shall come hereafter by the gift and power of the Holy Ghost, the voice of God, or the ministering of angels.
And in each case it only refers specifically to the record and the instance at hand, not the whole of scripture through out the ages. But thus can words be used and misinterpreted. And such is the taking of one reference out of context and applying it to the whole of the general situation.
Such is the statement that all the records where buried in the hill Cumorah except (save it where) those given to Moroni. At that time and instance did not preclude Moroni ever returning and burying his records there also. To conclude such is being narrow and simple minded. And in point of fact, if one can get beyond this simple mindedness or myopic mind set, and study the scriptures and the words of church 'historians' more faithfully, one would have to conclude just the opposite to be the case. Moroni did return to the hill and land of Cumorah. He had to.
Moroni Had To Return To Cumorah!
Now how can I say this? First lets turn to Mormon chapter six where Moroni is first given the plates from his father Mormon.
Mormon 6: 6 And it came to pass that when we had gathered in all our people in one to the land of Cumorah, behold I, Mormon, began to be old; and knowing it to be the last struggle of my people, and having been commanded of the Lord that I should not suffer the records which had been handed down by our fathers, which were sacred, to fall into the hands of the Lamanites, (for the Lamanites would destroy them) therefore I made this record out of the plates of Nephi, and hid up in the hill Cumorah all the records which had been entrusted to me by the hand of the Lord, save it were these few plates which I gave unto my son Moroni.
Now to start, how many are a 'few' plates? Well, that could be as few as three plates. But it could be more. The question is, did Mormon give Moroni the whole of the plates that Moroni gave to Joseph Smith from the hill Cumorah in New York? If Moroni never returned to that other proposed hill of Cumorah, Mormon must have given them all to Moroni to start with. But is that just being simple minded to assume that the 'few' plates that Mormon gave Moroni where the whole of the Golden plates that Moroni gave to Joseph Smith?
Let's next consider what was in the stack of 'many' plates which where received by Joseph Smith. There where the Small Plates of Nephi (1 Nephi - Omni). There was Mormon's abridgement (Lehi - 4 Nephi). There was Mormon's own book (Mormon). Then there was Moroni's abridgement of the record of the Jaredites (Ether). And last of the Book of Mormon writings was Moroni's own book (Moroni). But that was not all. Then there was the sealed portion of the plates, which most say was two thirds of the stack of plates. Now such a stack of plates, allowing for air space between each of the thin plates would weigh over 100 pounds and as much as 200 pounds but more than likely nearer the 100 pound amount. Now just briefly consider having to pack around a 100 pound weight with you while hiding and fleeing from the Lamanites, wandering thousands of miles from Central America to New York state over a time period of 36 years. Possible? Yes. Likely? No.
One must consider that when Mormon gave Moroni the 'few' plates, that the future of Moroni was unknown. And that fact is colaborated by Moroni's own words and record (See Moroni 1:1-4). Common sense says that Mormon would not have given Moroni all of the plates of the Golden Plates stack at that last battle scene of Cumorah. Logic says that at that point Moroni did not need the 'Sealed Plates.' And why risk such as the 'vision of all' when Moroni's future was not secure? The 'few' plates that Mormon gave to Moroni would be just those deemed necessary for Moroni to complete the history over his own few remaining years. And that is exactly what happened initially if one carefully reads and studies the Book of Mormon.
Moroni completed writing in his father's book. The last two chapters of Mormon's own book were written by Moroni. Mormon finished his writings with chapter 7 of his personal book, and Moroni wrote the last two chapters in his father's book, chapters 8 and 9. And then the Book was considered complete and Moroni considered his job complete. The answer to how many plates where a 'few' plates is had in the opening verse of Moroni's writing if one considers the logic of the situation.
Mormon 7:1 Behold I, Moroni, do finish the record of my father, Mormon. Behold, I have but few things to write, which things I have been commanded by my father.
Mormon gave Moroni his small last book, not the complete abridgement, not the sealed portion of the plates, not the 24 golden plates of the Jaredites. Mormon gave Moroni a 'few' plates. The few plates of the personal book of Mormon which already had 7 chapters in it, and commanded Moroni to finsh the record of his father, Mormon. And that is exactly what Moroni did. He wrote two more chapters, chapter 8 and 9, and then Moroni according to his own mind was finished with the book. And he even says so.
Mormon 8:6 Behold, four hundred years have passed away since the coming of our Lord and Savior.
Now the last battle at Cumorah was in 385 AD. When Moroni finally gets around to completing his father's record on the few plates he was given, 15 more years had passed. And it was 400 AD. Thus in 400 AD, when Moroni finished his father's small book on those 'few plates', what would he have done with them? Kept it for the next 20 some years until 421 AD? No, Moroni would have returned to the Hill Cumorah and placed the now 'completed' record intact with all the rest of the records, the small plates of Nephi and the Abridgement. He would have entered into the vault of records and placed those few plates with the rest. Consider Moroni, sitting in that vault of records and reconsidering the contents of the vault which he had helped his father prepare over fifteen years prior. There in the vault was the Urim and Thummim, the brest plate in which they where held when used, the sword of Laban, the Liahona, and all of the records of his people. And then he would have left again departing from Cumorah for what he then would have considered to be the last time until some 20 years later, he still finds himself alive.
Now Mormon gave Moroni a few plates in 385 AD. He did not at that time give Moroni the Urim and Thummim and the accompanying breastplate. Moroni did not need that to finish his father's record. Yet the Urim and Thummin and the breast plate where found on top of the Golden Plates when Joseph found them under Moroni's direction. Now can you honestly tell me that Moroni did not return to the vault of records in the hill of Cumorah at least upon one occasion, at least to obtain those items to include in his stone box for Joseph Smith in the side of the hill Cumorah in New York state?
Logic says that Moroni did again leave the Hill Cumorah for a second time for the space of 20 more years until about 420 AD. At that juncture in time Moroni, now aged himself, took more time to browse through the records. And under the direction of the Lord, Moroni on this occasion makes an abridgement of the 24 gold plates of the Jaredites.
Ether 1:2 And I take mine account from the twenty and four plates which were found by the people of Limhi, which is called the Book of Ether.
Note that the record was 'called' the Book of Ether, not that Ether had necessarily written it, but that Ether was the last prophet of the Jaredites should be noted. For the 'sealed portion' of the Book of Mormon contains the vision of all as give my Mahonri Moriancumr, but that is another story.
Moroni, in making his abridgement would have either had to use Mosiah's translation of the twenty four plates of the Jaredites or he would have had to have used the Urim and Thummim to translate the record himself before his could abridge the record. In either case, again the evidence is that Moroni has again returned to the hill of Cumorah to so abridge the record. It makes since that Moroni would have returned to the hill Cumorah and undertaken his work of abridging the record of the Jaredites while at the hill Cumorah. There the record of Mosiah's translation would be available. Mormon had not given him that back in 385 AD. There is where the Urim and Thummim and the accompanying breast plate would be. Mormon had not given him those items back in 385 AD. All Mormon had given Moroni back in 385 AD was the 'few' plates of his personal last writings, as Moroni's states, 'his father's book.
This is the logic and reasoning of the real history of Moroni, his life, and the hill of Cumorah. The hill of Cumorah would have been a place of the dead. Hundreds of thousands of people died there. It would have been left desolate for some time, and a place that Moroni could return to with some degree of surety of not being found out by the Lamanites that he was there. And Moroni did return there. He returned in 400 AD to place the completed record of his father with the rest of the plates, and at that time in 400 AD he considered his work complete. In 420 AD, he returned there again, and undertook the work of abridging the record of the Jaredites, likely from the translation of Mosiah or at the very least with the aid of the Urim and Thummim as the 24 plates of the Jaredites was in their own language.
And during that last stay at Cumorah, Moroni not only completed the abridgement called the Book of Ether, but he wrote a very short book of his own, the Book of Moroni. Now the final question is, did Moroni have to leave the hill Cumorah one last time to travel over 2000 miles to New York state with over 100 pounds of records in tow including the Urim and Thummim and the accompanying breast plate. That is the logic of the Mesoamerican theory.
So I confess to being simpleminded. I believe that Moroni was already at the hill Cumorah in the state of New York. In 420 AD, that is where he abridged the record of the Jaredites. All the tools and references where there to do it. It is there in 420-421 AD that Moroni wrote his own last book the Book of Moroni. And it is there that he put together the 'Golden Plates' bundle to give to Joseph Smith. That bundle included the Small Plates of Nephi, and the abridgement of the Nephites records of his father Mormon from the Book of Lehi to the Book of IV Nephi. And it included the small personal record of his father which he, Moroni, had previously finished. And it included the sealed portion of the Book of Mormon containing the vision of all, and the abridged record of the Jaredites which Moroni had just completed. It also included Moroni's own book, the short book of Moroni. And it included the Urim and Thummim, and the accompanying breast plate. That was the packaged bundle that Moroni prepared for Joseph Smith at the Hill Cumorah in 421 AD. And Moroni did not have to lug it around with him for another 2000 miles plus from one Hill Cumorah to another, because he was already there, and there was just one hill of Cumorah. Moroni simply removed his prepared bundle from the vault deep within the Hill Cumorah, to the side of the same hill. There he built a box out of stones and cement. He placed his carefully prepared bundle in it, and placed a precisely engineered large stone over it as its lid and cover. And right there at the hill of Cumorah is where he would later reveal the contents to Joseph Smith and convey the same to him.
Now this is being simple minded according to those of the Mesoamerican theory. But that is what happened according to the scriptures if read carefully. Now in my mind it is a lot more simple minded to accept that Moroni carried with him for 36 years the Urim and Thummim and its accompanying breast plate, the small plates of Nephi, the abridged plates of Mormon, and the sealed vision of all portion of the Book of Mormon. And to this he added 'on the fly' the abridgement of the record of the Jaredites, and his own small concluding book? To me, it is simpleminded to concluded that that menagerie of items could ever be considered to be the 'few' plates spoken of by Mormon as those he gave his son at the last battle scene 36 years prior in 385 AD. That is what I consider being simple minded.
Artists take liberties. While the art image of Moroni at the right does not show the Urim and Thummim the breast plate being entombed with the Golden Plates bundle, it is known that they where. And the tree roots of the immediate tree would have prohibited the digging and been cause for concern over the years. And while it is gratifying to note the snow on the ground indicating a non-Mesoamerican site, it was likely not done in the winter months of frozen ground. Yet it is a most beautiful conceptualization of Morori burying the Golden Plates in the earth.
It is not an original concept that Moroni returned to Cumorah of the Nephites before the burial of the Golden Plates. In fact all of we who maintain that Moroni buried the Golden Plates in the same Nephite hill of Cumorah of the destruction of the Nephites need maintain that that is the fact of the matter. We are often scoffed at for stating this. But our view is not unique, even with the Mesoamerican theorist there is such a needful action of returning to Cumorah. One such Mormon Scholar who had stated that Moroni returned to the hill of Cumorah is Sidney B. Sperry. His account is of some interest as he has made some conclusions about the sequence of Moroni's writings and the 400 AD dating of his writing in his father Mormon's book. Whether Brother Sperry's summation is correct, I do not know Moroni's exact sequence of writing. Sperry's differs a little from my own, and I am not such an authority on the matter as he. In either case, we both agree that Moroni did return to the Hill Cumorah before burying the plates for the last time. Yet some do scoff at such accounts with the question of 'why would Moroni have had to return to Cumorah before burying the plates?' My analysis does adds reason to why Moroni had to return to the Nephite Hill of Cumorah in any event and they parallel Dr. Sperry's conclusions on the matter.
MORONI FINISHES THE RECORD OF HIS FATHER. With Chapter 8 of the Book of Mormon we begin a consideration of the literacy labors of Mormon's son Moroni. The reader should observe carefully that Moroni did not begin to give an account of what transpired after the last great battle between the Nephites and the Lamanites until the year A.D. 401 (8:6). At the time Moroni wrote, it seems that he had little inclination to tell about the final destruction of his father's people. Moreover, he was alone and had nowhere to go. It is the writer's belief [Sydney B. Sperry] that he finished verses 1-13 of Chapter 8, wrote the first paragraph of the title page of the Book of Mormon, and then hid his record in the hill Cumorah (read carefully verses 12 and 13). After hiding the plates, he continued to wander over the face of this continent for many years. Possibly about the year A.D. 419 or 420 he decided to come back to the hill Cumorah and add some more to the record which he had thought finished. After taking out the plates, he continued from what is now verse 14 of Chapter 8. (See Sperry, Our Book of Mormon Chapter One.) . . . (Book of Mormon Studies by Dr. Sidney B. Sperry - Gospel Doctrine Department Course of Study for the Sunday Schools of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, page 118-119)
Now Dr. Sperry is a unique example for me to use. That is because Dr. Sperry favors the 'Middle America, ' Central America, or Mesoamerica location for the hill Cumorah where Mormon deposited all of the records save it where the few plates that where given to his son Moroni.
It will be noted from our perusal of this interesting statement that in or about the year A.D. 384, most of the important Nephite records were hidden in the Hill Cumorah (in Middle America). Moreover, we observe that the only records not deposited in the Hill Cumorah were a few entrusted to Moroni, which we may safely presume were those found by Joseph Smith centuries later. (Sidney B. Sperry, Book of Mormon Compendium [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1968], 18.)
Dr. Sperry included the '(in Middle America) note in his book himself. And he concludes that Moroni buried the plates in the hill of Cumorah in the state of New York by adding a similar qualifying note.
The guardian of the sacred record now proceeded to hide it in the cement box he had prepared for the purpose on the side of the Hill Cumorah (in New York). His work accomplished, Moroni wandered alone over this continent between the years A.D. 400 and A.D. 420. (Sidney B. Sperry, Book of Mormon Compendium [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1968], 20 - 21.)
So in Dr. Sperry's longer explanation of Moroni and the events leading to Moroni's depositing of the sacred records in the Hill Cumorah, he moves Moroni from Middle America in 385 AD to New York State in 400 AD. The 400 AD date deposit was to only have, according to Dr. Sperry, up to verse 12 of Chapter 8 in the book of his father Mormon and the title page first paragraph. This increased detail is housed in Chapter 2 of his book entitled 'Book of Mormon Conpendium.' But if this is the case his logic has worn thin.
Dr. Sperry has Moroni returning to the Hill Cumorah in New York in 420 AD to finish not only his father's record from verse 13 of chapter 8, including chapter 9 in Mormon's personal book which is fine. But then in his commentary he has to quickly allude to the fact that Moroni would have had to return to the other Hill Cumorah in Middle America to have obtained the 24 plates of Ether. Which granted he would have had to do. But Dr. Sperry's logic only haphazardly covers the fact the those plates where in a diferenct language and Moroni would have more than likely used Mosiah's tranlation of them for the purpose of his abridgement which record of Mosiah was also deposited by Mormon in the Middle American Hill Cumorah. But Dr. Sperry does not think that Moroni brought those records from Middle America with the 24 plates of Ether as his proposes that 'Moroni had a copy of the Jaredite scripture in a convenient portable form commonly used by the Nephites.' Thus he awkwardly avoids having to explain whether the sealed portion of the plates are just the 24 plates of Ether or what happened to the plates of Mosiah's translation.
Of course one can make up and explain anything they want. But how far afield does one go from the scriptures in attempting to justify two Cumorah's? And of concluding note, Dr. Sperry's explanation of Moroni's travels and events from 385 to 421 AD never do account for the Urim and Thummim and its accompanying breastplate to be deposited in the hill in New York at any juncture in time. Of course that could have happened in between anywhere in all these journeys back and forth, 2000 miles each way between the two hills of Cumorah I suppose. But why, I ask?
I maintain that the bulk of the records stayed in the singular, one, Hill Cumorah all of the time, with the exception of the 'few plates' of Mormon's personal book which Moroni was given to complete the record of his father on. I don't believe that Mormon, after securing the Nephite records out of the Hill Shim would ever take the records back into the now central lands of the Lamanites to risk them falling into the Lamanite hands at the last battle. If the hill Cumorah is in Middle America. Mormon's gathering of the Nephite nation would have been to travel far north, as many of the Nephites had removed exceedingly far distances north from such a location. I don't believe that Moroni ever risked going back down into the heart of what would now most assuredly be well-populated Lamanite territory in Central America. The danger was too great and a totally illogical maneuver, little alone to dig back into the vaulted area of the hill where the records where, which would have taken some length of time to do going in and coming out. The 'land of the dead' in New York would be located well out of the central lands of the Lamanite and would likely have been avoided for years. The New York land regions was on the fringes of the northern 'ice cold land' and the peoples of the Book of Mormon where more accustomed to a year round environment which would provide moderate climatic living conditions. Any exposure as far north as New York would likely have been migratory which would also allow Moroni security of access in the colder months. I don't think the regions around such a hill in Central America would have been so avoided.
It is of interest that our own times we have seen the pioneers migrate in mass over 1000 miles each summer season from the east to Salt Lake. We have seen the travelers of the Oregon Trail who traveled over 2000 miles in such a time. Can we conclude that the Nephites could not have done so over the time of four years? The settlers of the west did it for personal reasons, unforced other than by poverty, opportunity, freedom of religion or some other such purpose. But there are those that hold that the Nephites would not have been able to accomplish such a feat for they where only pursued under the very threat of life and extinction. Certainly a people can transport themselves over such distances in short periods of time and the Nephites where not traveling in poorly charted wildernesses of high and rocky mountains after mountains. Their course was year round open to travel, not seasonal at all. Their route was from known location to known location, which had been traveled before. Latter-day Indians have traveled such on the 'Trail of Tears.' The settlers of the west traveled such in one season's worth of travel in just a fractional part of one year. You can't tell me the Nephites could not have or would not have done the same.
The age of Mormon was 11 years old in 322 AD. That means by 385, Mormon would have been 74 years old. Given that Moroni was born in Mormon's mid child production years, say age 24-25, Moroni would have been about 50 years old himself. And in 421 AD, Moroni would have in his mid 80s. Not a young man but quite elderly. Even if Moroni was born to Mormon later, Moroni would have still been of an old age. Now ordinarily this would not be a big deal. But consider Moroni's task if one places the hill Cumorah in Mesoamerica and the records being buried in the state of New York.
Even Sydney B. Sperry surmises that Moroni did not finish the Book of Mormon until the year of 420 AD. (see Chapter 25 of his 'Book of Mormon Conpendium' beginning at page 459) Brother Sperry states that Moroni had only written very briefly before he had decided or was commanded to include the record of the Jaredites as a part of the Book of Mormon. I agree. Brother Sperry states that Moroni did not come to the decision until 420 AD. I agree. Brother Sperry surmises that Moroni would have to either use the Urim and Thummim to translate and then abridge the 24 plates into the Book of Ether. But Brother Sperry states that this would have been much too difficult a task to expect Moroni to do when there was already a translation had among the Nephites which Moroni refers to as the Book of Ether. I agree. Thus accordingly Moroni would have to travel to the Mesoamerican hill of Cumorah. Excavate the hill in the mist of Lamanite territory, retrieve the 24 golden plates, the Urim and Thummim, and the record of Mosiah's translation.
Now it Moroni used Mosiah's translation of the 24 golden plates, then is the sealed portion of the Book of Mormon a combination of the 24 plates of the Jaredites and Mosiah's translation of it or did Moroni stay at the Middle America hill Cumorah to abridge the record before sealing up the vault of records again? Whatever the case may be, these actions take Moroni down into the central lands of the Lamanite to the hill Cumorah and back to New York all in one year. And for the 2000 plus miles from the one hill to the other, Moroni would be carrying with him the sealed portion of the plates, the Urim and Thummim, and the accompanying breast plate. That is a loaded effort for an elderly 80 year old man. And during this time, Moroni was to also abridge the Jaredite record, write his own book of Moroni and bury his bundle in the Hill Cumorah in New York state.
Now, this is a monumental task. And while the roads and territories would be familiar to Moroni, his primary concern of not falling into the hands of the Lamanites would have increased the difficulty of the task immensely. This makes Dr. Sperry's logic thin on the matter. And here in I part from agreeing with Dr. Sperry and conclude the task too difficult and totally unwarranted, as there was not two hills of Curmorah but only one.
The more logical conclusion is that the Hill Cumorah was not in the mist of Lamanite, Middle American territory but on the northern fringe of inhabitable land. What is inhabitable land? To a people who has lived in year round seasonably accomodating conditions, the skills of living in cold winter snow and ice lands are minimal. At best, like the American plains Indian, they would be a migratory people, leaving the winter lands in the winter traveling south like many birds do each year. This would give Moroni the needed window of opportunity to perform his task at hand. He would have to excavate the Hill Cumorah undetected over the period of time necessary to undertake the the abridging of the record of the Book of Ether. He would have to write his own book. He may have had to prepare more plates. He would have to reseal the vault, and prepare his bundle for deposit in the side of the same hill. This was no chore done during one evening's adventure of burying treasure. It was an undertaking of weeks and possibly months to complete undetected by the Lamanites. And this is without having to travel some 3000 miles in that time to do it.
Lewis and Clark traveled just over 4000 miles in about 2 years time in their famous journey. A year and a half would equate to 3000 miles at such a rate. Add that to Moroni's task of traveling, avoiding detection, abridging, writing, record preparation, and entombment, and you have just out scaled the time from 420 to 421 AD allowable. The logic is just too thin to fit even the capabilities of a young robust man in his prime to perform. And to be performed by an aged man of 80 years, it places the task in the realm of unreality. Now what is ironic, is this is the same group that says in one breath that Lehi was to old to travel far from his landing site in the Americas. Yet Moroni was able to travel over 3000 miles at a similar age, avoiding Lamanite detection the whole time, and writing and abridging on the fly as he is doing this? NOT! And this is the same group that concludes the 'narrow neck' of land to be a distance of some 125 miles across being capable of a Nephite traveling in a day and a half when it suits their model. But then they place the Hill Cumorah within that same day and a half journey from the narrow neck after 10 years of Lamanite wiping the land clean of Nephites as dew disappearing before the morning sun. And they propose that this was Mormon's hope of gaining an advantage over his enemy? NOT! Some how the logic just does not add up and seems purely manipulated to force a fit to a model which does not even support leaders and authorities of the Chruch who have stated otherwise since the time of Joseph Smith and the coming forth of the record.