The Writer and His Spokesman:
A Study of the Prophet Mormon and His Son Moroni

by Don R. Hender


The actual writer, that is historian, compiler, abridger, narrator and commentator of the major portion of the Book of Mormon is the Prophet Mormon who lived in America from about 310 to almost 400 A.D. Due to the 1830 New York legal requirement that an 'author' of a book held the rights to publishing a book, Joseph Smith Jr. was listed in that first edition as the book's author though he in all reality was but the modern day translator of the ancient Nephite record and penned very little of the book due to his almost exclusive utilization of scribed to pen the text as he translated by the use of the urim and thummim and power of God. Further, because the first 116 pages of the original scribed Book of Mormon text had been lost and accordingly compromised as described in the 1830 edition, the writings of the prophet Nephi and sundry other early prophets where subsituted according to the Lord's all seeing provision to replace the beginning section of the Book of Mormon. And Mormon's own son Moroni, a prophet in his own right, would become the books finisher and revelator. Mormon himself was the redactor of his portion of the Book of Mormon, often quoting and paraphrasing other writers, frequently including whole texts by other authors and even writing his own abridged narrative of his own life and times according to how they did fit into the 1000 year Nephite history.

The study of the life of the prophet Mormon of the Book of Mormon may be divided into six phases as set out by the following table. The first phase includes Mormon's birth, his calling by the prophet Ammaron to be the future prophet and record keeper at age 10, his recruitment and/or calling to be the Nephite millitary commander at age 15, and his first deliverance of the Nephite people upon his successful defence against the Lamanites in the land of Zarahamela. The second phase includes his likely initial family life, his first securing of the Nephite records, the birth of his sone Moroni and his second recuitment and/or calling to command the Nephite millitary against the Lamanite advancement behond the land of Zarhemla and first invasion into the Nephite lands north beyond the narrow neck of land. It also includes Mormon's second successful deliverance and defence of the Nephite nation. The third phase includes the season of treaties and peace, the following third and final defence and deliverance of the Nephite nation, the Nephite millitary's abandonment of the 'righteous princilple of self defense' and Mormon's determinded total retirement from the Nephite millitary because of that abandonment. The fourth phase which includes the Lamanite penatrating invcsion north of the narrow neck and their ] threat to the Nephite civilization and the sacred Nephite records kept as a part of Mormon's calling as the prophet, Mormon's subsequent coming out of retirement to secure the records and defend the Nephite nation and then the beginning of the end of the Nephite nation. The fifth phase includes the final 10 years of the Nephite nation, their continual retreat from before the Lamanite deluge of invasion and the final disaster of the ultimate Nephite defeat which effected the end of the Nephite civilization. The sixth and final phase of Mormon's life is a little documented period of post Cumorh existence. It includes such as the few remaining Nephites withdrawl into the 'southern' and eastern region of the land northward (the southern states of the United States today per the greater model), the days of hunting down and anihilation of every soul who held to a faith in Jesus Christ, any such resulting skirmishes, including that final battle wherein the aged Mormon died in still fighting the Lamanites in defense of the Nephites and their faith in Jesus Christ.

Summary of Mormon's Life Timeline
Phase I
310-330 AD
(About 20 years)
310 ~ 320 ~ 330
Youth Preparation
First Deliverance
Phase II
330-350 AD
(About 20 years)
330 ~ 340 ~ 350
First Interim
Second Deliverance
Phase III
350-362 AD
(About 12 years)
350 ~ 362
Second Interim
Thrid Deliverance
Phase IV
363-375 AD
(About 12 years)
363 ~ 375
Last Tenative Intermin
Beginning of the End
Phase V
376-386 AD
(Some 10 years)
376 ~ 386
Ten Year Deluge
of Disaster
Effective End
Phase VI
386-400? AD
Up to 14 years)
386 ~ 400?
Mormon Fights On
Dies in Later Battle

Mormon's Timeline

Like many of the Lord's prophets through out time, their coming and mission has been foreshadowed and prophesied. Mormon's renown ancestor Lehi is he who so prophesies, testifies and sets out what the trust of his descendant to come will be. He is to write the record of the Nephites unto the world, and like Moses of old, he will be given a spokesman to assist him. It would seem appropriate that when the prophet Ammaron came to the 10 year old Mormon to convey his related mission to this prophesy of old, that Ammaron would have laid his hands upon the young Mormon and blessed him with a blessing which recounted the fact that father Lehi had been told that one of the fruit of his lions would be so called and that he Mormon was to be this promised writer or compiler and abridger of the Nephite record which was to go unto the world in the latter days. Lehi's testimony and prophesy is given by Nephi in 2 Nephi chapter 3. There Lehi not only makes mention of what Mormon's role would be but in connection with what would be the writings of the Apostle John, Lehi also sets out that Mormon would also have a spokesman who would bare the responsibility for declaring it unto the world (see Revelation 14:6).

When read and understood correctly, the 'writer' and his 'spokesman' of the Book of Mormon are the descendants of Lehi for the promise is made unto Lehi that his posterity shall remain in the land and as Elder McConkie also points out in his book 'A New Witness for the Articles of Faith', page 425, it is Mormon who is the writer of the Book of Mormon spoken of there, not Joseph Smith. For Joseph Smith did translate it and it was primarily Mormon who did write, that is abridge the Book of Mormon from the records of the Nephites. And Mormon's spokesman, who is also a descendant of Lehi, is of course Moroni, that angel flying in the midst of heaven having the everlasting gospel which is contained in the Book of Mormon to the nations of the earth.

Mormon lived from about 311 A.D. to sometime after 385 A.D. He was age 74 at the great battle of Cumorah but he and other Nephites lived to fight another day as it was not until a later battle that Mormon was finally killed by the Lamanites. Mormon was the Nephite military leader as well as the Nephite prophet of his day. Mormon lead the Nephite armies at three different times, once in his youth from age 16 to 19 or 20, once in his middle age from about age 34 to about age 51 and then finally in his old age from about age 64 to age 74 and beyond until his death in a final battle briefly referenced by his son Morori who was at that time writing in the year 400 AD (Mormon 8:5). Moroni does not give the exact date nor the details of that final battle of his fathers, but it could have been any number of years after Cumorah's great battle up to that time concurent with the year of Moroni's writing.

As presented, Mormon's life may be segmented into 6 phases as given in the introductory timeline summary table. Each of those phases will be studies and reported on in a manner which hopely will yield new insights and understandings of this great Nephite prophet, of Mormon and his life.

Phase I - Youth to age 20: From about 310 to 330 A.D.

Mormon is stated to have been a descendant of Nephi and therefore of necessity he was also a descendand of Lehi. We may presume that he was raised for the first eleven years of his life in the land north of the narrow neck of land near enough to the land of Antum that he understood that which was spoken to him by the prophet Ammaron though we do not have in the abridged Book of Mormon the exact local name where he was born and raised. Mormon is first mentioned at the age of 10 in about 321 A.D., a young age but not unheard of in scriptures, as both Samuel and likely Nephi himself was first called to the workd of the Lord at that 'extremely' young age. At this time the Nephite prophet and recordkeeper Ammaron came to the house of Mormon, Mormon also being the name of father of the young Mormon, and called the young Mormon to assume the position of the Nephite recordkeeper beginning at the age of 24. He was to retrive the plates to begin his keeping of the record merely by adding to it his own observations. He was told to observe the Nephite history during his life and he most likely began his recording of that in the large plates of Nephites he would find in the hill Shim located in the land of Antum.

While Mormon lived in the land northward being north of the narrow at that date, it was only in the next year that the elder Mormon took his 11 year old son south through the narrow neck passage into the land southward and into the great Nephite national lands of Zarahemla. The land of Zarahemla is said by Mormon to have been covered by buildings and in his mind he states that the people there were as numerous almost, as it were the sand of the sea. Perhaps what drew the elder Mormon to Zarahemla was the stirring unrest in the land for in that very year war between the Nephites and Lamanites commenced. Perhaps Mormon's father, Mormon, was a military man and both he and his young son who was large in stature were both drawn into the battle. Mormon states that the war began in the borders of the nation of Zarahemla by the waters of Sidon, whether that was in Manti, Minon or even by the city of Zarahemla itself is not specified. Yet even in that first year there were 'many battles' in which an army of over 30,000 Nephites did beat the Lamanites and slayed many of them.

With such success at that earliest of stages, the Lamanites withdrew and Mormon and his father were able to enjoy the peace which settled in the land for about four years. Yet Mormon observed that wickedness prevailed upon the face of the whole land and that the Lord during that time did take away his beloved disciples, likely including the three Nephites whom Mormon and his father may well have met and communicated with.

Beginning below is the timeline chart which summarizes Mormon's life. This first segment of the chart runs until Mormon is about age 20.

Date Age
311 0 Birth in Land Northward likely in region of hill Shim Mormon 1
321 10 Called by Ammoran to retrieve records at age 24 Mormon 1:2-4
322 11 Carried away by father (Mormon Sr.) to land of Zarahemla
Nephite Lamanite battles with Nephite success
Mormon 1:6-11
323 -326 15 Four year peace yet wickedness prevailed.
Lord's deciples (apostles) withdrawn.
Mormon 1:12-14
326 15 Called by the LORD and comes to know his goodness.
Mormon attempts to preach but is restrained.
Gadiation robbers, sorceries, witchcrafts and evil.
Mormon 1:15-19
327 16 Called upon to lead Nephite Armies Mormon 2:1-2
330 19 Defeat Lamanite Army of King Aaron (This is the 'First Deliverance' of the Nephites of the three deliverences which Mormon references.) Mormon 2:9

First Deliverance (the Zarahemla Deliverence)

The youthful teenage Mormon, after a number of battles and retreats, defeats the army of King Aaron of the Lamanities in the national land of Zarahemla, southward of the narrow neck of land. This marks the 'First Deliverance' from the Lamanites under Mormon's military leadership of the Nephite armies. Whether this King Aaron, or a junior of the same name, is the same King Aaron Mormon at age 74 will later encounter at the defeat of the Nephites at Cumorah may be considered.

After this successful victory over the Lamanities, the still very young Mormon, is now nearly 20 years old and his thoughts turn to the prophet Ammaron and Mormon's responsibilities given him concerning the Nephite records. And thus with the defeat of the Lamanite army of King Aaron, peace is estabished in the land of Zarahemla and with such peaceful stablization that this deliverance from the Lamanites, Mormon is now able to direct his attention to that first calling given him by the prophet Ammaron and thus Mormon withdraws himself from the land of Zarahemla and returns to the land of his birth north of the narrow neck of land. Mormon is not able to so position himself to begin to take charge of the Nephite records. He is also most likely at this point in time goint to settle down to marriage and the domestic labors of raising his own family.

Phase II from about 330 to 350 A.D.
The First Interim Period

(330-345 AD)

After his arrival home in the north, Mormon's military leadership of the Nephite armies in the south begins to fade from his mind. He is in his homeland in the land north, north of the narrow neck of land, and his battles of war seem far distant, almost as though having been in another country. After all, by the age of 24 he will have the duty placed upon him by Ammaron to record his 'adventured in the Nephite records, that is that which he has so far observed and participated in first hand.

As is the case of Joseph Smith, Mormon's life also most likely takes upon itself the obligation and relationship of marriage and raising a family of his own. Because the Book of Mormon is a highly condensed and abridged record we tend to forget that these are real people with real lives. Mormon was not just merely 'General' Mormon the prophet and abridger of the Book of Mormon, he had a life and there are 'interims' of his military career in which he settles down to a real family life. After his first youthful leading of the Nephite armies, such an interim of 'family' occurs. Thus during this time, after the 1st deliverance, Mormon travels north to the Hill Shim and retreives the plates of Nephi. His record keeping consists of a complete record which continues on in the large plates of Nephi with his own book, Mormon. He also begins his abridged record of the Golden Plates which contains only a 'hundredth part' of the history of his people. And his small personal book 'Mormon' within the Golden Plates is just that, a very condensed abridged account. In fact he determines not to tell all in the Book of Mormon abridgement where he tends to leave years on end out of his account within the abridgement, but he does write a full account which he does include with the large plates of Nephi. One day we will have that full account.

Also during this time, he must have taken time out for courtship, marriage, and to begin to raise his family. Moroni certainly would have likely been born with in this first Interim time frame when Mormon travels north to retrieve the plates of Nephi. It may have also given Mormon the oportunity to marry one of those 'good' hometown girls, rather than those 'big city' girls of the corupt land of Zarahemla. One can only speculate, as Mormon leaves these matters entirely out of his abridged record.

331-334 20-24 Mormon retires from his first early young teenage leadership of the Nephite army and from the land southward. He likely makes his way back to the land of his birth in the land north of the narrow neck of land and prepares himself to retrieve the records as Ammoran prescribed. It is during this juncture of time that Mormon likely proceeds to court and become married Calculated
335 24 Mormon is now living in the land northward as he proceeds to retrieve the records from the hill Shim in the land of Antum - He is likely married - and he likely begins having children with Moroni being born approximately at this time Mormon 1:14
Approximate Birth during this first interm of marriage and obtaining the records of Nephi from the land northward.
345 34 Lamanites come in force and drive the Nephites way into the land northward, even to the land of Jashon which was near the land of Antum where all the Nephite records where stored. Driven from there to City and Land of Shem even further north. Mormon 2:16
Mormon's family likely removed further north way beyond Jordan, which becomes Moroni's feilds of labor when he is latter called to the labor by the Lord in one of the remaining pockets of the Church. Young Moroni is left to be the 'man of the house' in his father's absense at war.
346 35 Mormon takes lead of Nephite forces for the second time and rallies the Nephites in defense of their homes, wives and childern. Mormon 2:22-
Moroni with Mormon's family is likely secured in a location much further north than Shem and perhaps even Jordan.
350 39 Secure all their lands and now has (delivered the Nephites a second time) from the hands of the Lamanites. A treaty is established dividing the lands at the Narrow Neck between the Lamanites and Nephites. Mormon 2:28-29
Moroni has become a young man and is on the verge of being called by the Lord to the work of the Gospel in the further northlands in which he has help to secured his family, his father Mormon being occupied with the defense of the nation.

Second Deliverance (the Shem Deliverance)

Phase III from about 350 to 362 A.D.
Second Interim Period

(350-361 AD)

Besides the retrieval and beginning of his record keeping, Mormon used the first interim of time for the natural personal interests of courtship, marriage and child rearing. Now in his 'middle ages' and with the Lamanite threat which was upon his very door steps pushed back, Mormon's second interim away from war after having accomplished a 'treaty' with the Lamanites is spent in service to his people the Nephites as he continues in the role of not only military leader of the Nephites but also as standing and functioning prophet. He is more mature, being 40-50 years old, and he has as his objective to have the Nephites strengthen their lines along the northern Narrow Neck, which since the treaty divides the Lamanites from the Nephites. Building up the Nephite defenses in the localized land and city of Desloation just at the north of the narrows. He does this despite the treaty, as Mormon fully anticipates that the Lamanites will most certainly again begin their assult upon the Nephites in the future. He now continues or begins to preach to the people as God has allowed him to do so. His defensive approach is dual pronged, physical and spiritual. He strengthens the defensive lines and his people physically and he also attempts to sure them up, calling them to repentance spiritually.

This is also most likely the period when Mormon's son Moroni is called into the work of the Lord, perhaps being located further to the north where the Nephite records are secured by Mormon to be kept near where his family is there about the land of Antum and the hill Shim. Perhaps it is during Moroni's early work with the Church in those regions that a servious question of doctrine arises which Moroni likely refers to his prophet father to help resolve. It seems that these newly mixed Nephites have began to question or contend as to the proper timing of performing the saving ordinance of batism and are starting to preach infant baptism, perhaps under the scared and duress of war and the fate of their little ones in God. Thus Mormon's epistle to Moroni in Moroni chapter 8 is concerning the doctrine of how children are treated in the gospel plan, logically fall within this interim time frame of about 10 years with Mormon at the southern border at the narrow neck in the province of Desolation and Moroni administering the business of the church further north among the now mixed Nephites of south and north combined.

39-50 10-11 Year interim visiting family, working with the people, preachig the gospel - likely time of Mormon's epestile to Moroni of Moroni 8: Mormon 3: 16-26 Has recieved call to the gospel and preaches in the lands further north. Receives epistle from his father Momron regarding the gospel treatment of little children.
50-51 Mormon's preparations work well. As later noted in Mormon's second epistle to Moroni which he writes at a later time, Aaron is still the Lamanites King and in Aaron's mind Mormon would be his arch rival as Mormon has defeated him twice yet Aaron's victory was in obtaining all of the land south of the Narrow Neck. Therefore Aaron has had his victories also. Twice does Aaron bring his armies against the Land and City of Desolation. And in both battles Mormon's preparations win out to such an extent that the Nephites begin to boast of themselves not giving credit where credit is due and that is to the Lord and His Prophet Mormon. In fact the Nephites are so built up in their self pride in their victory, that they determine to go against the Lamanites south of the Narrow Neck of land in an act of vengence. It is at this point that Mormon utterly refusing to be their leader any longer. Thus the Third Deliverance of the Nephites out of the hands of the Lamanites is a bitter one. Mormon 3:7-8 26-27 Moroni is removed from this scene as he is working with the Nephites much further north, attempting to win on the spiritual front the souls of the Nephites there. And that is a 'war in it own right.' Which is the greater battle, to be a missionary in the mission field fighting against Satan by word of mouth as part of the Army of God, or to be actually physically engaged with the enemy in a fight of blood and physical death. Both are great battlefields with victories to be won. Moroni at this time is so engaged and likely that is where Mormon's family is also.

Third Deliverance (the narrows deliverance)
The Last Tenative Interim Period

(363-375 AD)

Mormon has now delivered the Nephites from the hands of the enemy three times. At the young age of 20, he experienced his first major victory of the army of the Lamanite King Aaron. This was the first time he deliverd the Nephites out of the hands of the Lamanites. Moroni was not even born then. But the Nephites of Zarahemla were wicked and continued to fall prey to the Lamanites and Gadianton Robbers.

The second time Mormon delived the Nephites from the hands of the enemy was when King Aaron had cought the Nephites totally unprepared, and their retreat was so extreme and rapid that it pasted by Desolation, Teancum, Boaz and other lands until it came nearly to Antum when the Nephites where pressed to Jashon. And even then they could not hold Jashon as they where pushed further north to the Land and City of Shem. Only Mormon's appeal to fight for home, family and wives inspired them to boldly stand and turn the tide against the Lamanites. Yet they never did successfully establish themself back in Zarahemla. And the treaty was drawn at the narrow neck of land.

In Mormon's third deliverance, Mormon planned well and hand the people prepared and the defense was successful. But it came with the bitter cup of pride, boasting and revenage upon the hearts of the Nephites.

Thus Mormon's third rest bit from the battle is of two fold. First from 363 to 367 he is not a participant and has likely retreated to the north, following the action only at this distance by the reports. The See Saw battle begins as the Nephites are not successful in their agression, and lose battles back to the city of Teacum before their anger gains themselves a tempory victory and reprieve back to the Narrow Neck line of defense from whence that had started.

The second portion of Mormon's 'Tenative Interim' is likely worse than the first. It is the period of waiting and knowing the storm is surely coming. From 367 to 375 the Lamanites regroup in their greatest forces and efforts ever. So for about 12 years Mormon has off from military duty. But he sees and then awaits the storm with little or no hope.

52-56 The first five year or Mormon's thrid interim was waiting on the edge of war on going. Though Mormon was removed from the battle front, back in the lands of Shem, Jashon, and Antum if not with his family further north, almost daily there would be reports and speculations as to how the battles where waging. Mormon was old from a warrior's perspective and he was removed from the battle, but the battle raged on. Mormon 4:1-15 29-33 We do not know if Moroni had family or not. In such a situation one must consider but Moroni had the benefit of dwelling his days in the north, away from all the battle fronts. And he would be spending in the northern pockets of Christianity that remained where he had been called by the Lord to serve in these perilous times. The Nephites were wick and ripe for destruction as a people. But that did not stop a few from being close to the Lord. And that is where Moroni was.
56-64 The eight years from 367 to 375 would have been very uneasy years for Mormon. His age would have had the wisdom to know that Aaron, the Lamanite King was not finished yet. Both he and Aaron had aged together. And Aaron would now be more determined than ever. For eight years it was now Aaron's turn to prepare for the battle. Mormon was self retired. It would have been the waiting for the storm that you knew was coming from Mormon's perspective, and when it hit, Mormon know exactly what to expect. Mormon 4:16 33-41 Moroni's family had a chance to grow up. But it was the growing up unto an uneasy future. Almost like awaiting the destructions and disasters of the Second Coming. Moroni could only hope that it would be later than sooner. Every year meant another uneasy reprieve from the fate that was ahead, yet life went on and many happy moments where had in the lands of the north where there was at least the hope of time extended.

The Deluge of Disaster Began In 375 AD.

Mormon must have understood that it would only be a matter of time before the Lamanites would be upon the Nephites again especially in response to the Nephite aggression against them. Thus the storm when it hit was of an obvious course. But the swiftness and the intensity of moving so fast over such expanses of land seemed to take even Mormon by surprise. Mormon's first priority of course was to secure all the records of the Nephites from the hill Shim. Yes there were a few good men, men he could trust, men of God, including his son Moroni. And Mormon needed their help, the help of the faithful in preserving and caring for the bulk of the records. Once they where secure and in the hands of his selected faithful, likely under the care of his son Moroni, Mormon at age 65 could not just stand idly by to watch his Nephite people fall at the hands of his arch enemy, King Aaron and the Lamanites. Thus repented Mormon of the oath he had taken to not lead the Nephite armies again. What a majestic figure the large chisled body of a 65 year Mormon must have been. Grey hair, muscle, height, and determination of aged undaunted classic, he again rose to fight the galent battle. But the swiftness of the invasion, sweeping the Nephite people from off the face of the earth as dew before the sun, had already set any real sustainable Nephite defense on its heals. The best that Mormon could do was to retreat a and regroup the Nephites to take a stand at the 'narrow of Jordan' and to build up and reinforce the strongholds of that region further north as the rest of the land was already in the state of having been lost without any hope left therein. And thus the March of Blood of the extermination of the Nephite nation had well set in upon them.

65-68 The blood and horro of it all was too much. The Nephites where being sweep from the face of the earth as dew before the sun. In their retreat Mormon's first actions where to gather all up who he could. The Nephites where in out and out retreat, but where would they retreat to. Mormon had a plan and Jordan was his anchor. Around the land of Jordan to the north of the now over ran lands of Shem, Antum, Jashon, and Boaz, lay another group of strong cities, which where strongholds in the land. The Lamanites would have traveld a great distance in pursuit and there was the opportunity of making a stand at Jordon and with the stronghold cities round about that land. There was great Sherizah and Moriantum as well as many others. Mormon 4:1-15 41-44 We do not know if Moroni had family or not. In such a situation one must consider but Moroni had the benefit of dwelling his days in the north, away from all the battle fronts. And he would be spending in the northern pockets of Christianity that remained where he had been called by the Lord to serve in these perilous times. The Nephites were wick and ripe for destruction as a people. But that did not stop a few from being close to the Lord. And that is where Moroni was.
379 69 The Last Stand at Jordon Mormon 5:3-4
Moroni doing the work of the Church in the lands still north of the battle front.
380 69 Jordan and all the Nephite Strongholds fall before the Lamanites Mormon 5:6
Moroni preaching and doing the work of the Church in the land north of the war.
380 69 Mormon's Last Epistle: A Time capsule view of the colape or the Jordan defense. Moroni 9:all
Moroni reads Mormon's last letter detailing the final colapse, promise of the records, dissentions of the Nephites, etc.
381 70 The final continual retreat is a test of speed - retreat or be destroyed Mormon 5:7
The word is out - The Lamanites are coming - Gather your families join the retreat of die
382 71 Mormon stops giving any account of the blood and carnage - rather preaches to Gentiles Mormon 1:8-9
Moroni joins Mormon's retreat as land in being over ran.
383 72 Retreat has reached throughout to Mississippi Valley - Mormon partitions King Aaron - Zelph is killed in battle along Illinois River. History of the Church Vol. 2 - Mormon 6:1-2
Moroni and others join in the fight in a continual pattern of retreat.
384 73 King Aaron of the Lamanites grants reprieve to organize the last battle against all remaining Nephites. Mormon with aid prepares last hiding place of the Nephite records deep in the hill Cumorah. Mormon 6:3-5
Moroni and other aid in the gathering of the remaining of those who do still call themselves Nephites to Cumorah.
385 74 The 'wars' round about Cumorah commence and end Mormon 6:6-22
Moroni and Mormon among 24 Nephite survivors - Moroni receives a few plates and last charge of his father
386-400 75+ The Great Mormon found and fights his last battle to his death against Lamanites. Mormon
Moroni finishes his father's record and returns to Cumorah to hide his records in the hill Cumorah.
Moroni & Ether
Moroni travels land avoiding Lamanites and once again returns to Cumorah. Translates Jaredite record the book of Ether and finishes his own small book.

This portrayal by artist Arnold Freiberg is quite stirring. But often many have come to the wrong conclusion. 24 Nephite wariors survived the great battle at Cumorah. And there is indications that there were still other Nephites pockets which did not or were not drawn into that great final battle which for all intensive purposes was the end to the Nephite civilization. Mormon, though 74 years of age at Cumorah, continued to fight with whatever Nephites factions remained. And he was not killed until he died in a later battle against the Lamanites. The Lamanites themselves continued to persue any and all remaining Nephite pockets of society until they were all exterminated. It seems that a number of battles waged on for some number of years, though the war was won at Cumorah. Moroni's record alludes to these facts but does not go into any detail concerning them. And by 420 A.D. Moroni does seem to be the last who could call himself a Nephite as all the others were dead or had been assorbed with the Lamanites by defection or otherwise. Thus after 35 more years after Cumorah, from 485 to about 421 A.D., Moroni final ends his record of the Nephite people and places his plate package in the side of that same hill of Cumorah where he father had concealed the rest of the Nephite records some 34 years previous. Perhaps Moroni had frequented the hill prior, as he did translate and abridge the 24 plates of gold of Ether into what we have as the Book of Ether in the Book of Mormon. Thjs was not an original intent of Mormon and Moroni back in 385 A.D., but over the years, either by commandment or as seemed prudent on the part of Moroni, he does go back to the concealled room in the hill, extract those plates of Ether, and translate and abridge their content for our benefit.

Rev. 8-4-09